https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, Sokol, Joshua, “Troubled Treasure,” Science, May 23, 2019. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, Thiha, “Myanmar’s New Gold Mine is Dinosaur Amber, July 11, 2018. https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, Xing, Linda et al., “A Feathered Dinosaur Tail with Primitive Plumage Trapped in Mid-Cretaceous Amber,” Current Biology, 26: 24, pl. Utilitarian Theory and Human Rights Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory by which the public welfare of a community is dependent on the “sum welfare of individuals, which is measured in units of pleasure and/or pain”, requiring governments to make decisions based on the “largest sum of pleasure” (Postema, 2006). This yellow to reddish-brown translucent material has been used in a number of ways, including to make jewelry, in Egyptian burials, and in the healing arts. Utilitas, 18(9), 109-133. https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, Greshko, Michael, “Ancient Bird Foot Found in Amber Has Bizarrely Long Toes,” National Geographic, July 11, 2019. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, Lawton, Graham, “Blood Amber: The Exquisite Trove of Fossils Fueling War in Myanmar,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, Nelson, Alexandrea, “The Materiality of Morality: Conflict Minerals,” Utah Law Review, 2014: 1, p. 219 (2014). In particular, Article 7 states that “all are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law”, however the statistics provided by the NYCLU clearly suggests that blacks and Latinos are routinely stopped by the NYPD more than whites. Football causes more concussions than any other high school sport. The main principle of utilitarian moral theory, the principle of utility, states that the right action is the one that produces the most overall happiness. They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. Utilitarian Theories. However, these two philosophies take on different standpoints on ethics. Like other forms of consequentialism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects. a. For example, the government has made it difficult for Christian and Islamic groups to gain permission to repair or build new places of worship.  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain?  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). This has led some to suggest that the NFL is a modern plantation. The universal interest of protecting the right to vote is greater than that which protects from discrimination, because the community then has the power to modify or repeal laws in which it sees as unjust. 89 v. Department of Education, Zenith Radio Corporation v. United States, GET YOUR CUSTOM ESSAY For example, assume a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. In May 2012 Florida Governor Rick Scott ordered the removal of non-citizens from voter registration rolls, based on data collected from the Department of Motor Vehicles on 180,000 people (Adams, 2012). We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. This chapter provides a survey of utilitarian theories of justice. The mining of these amber specimens in Myanmar is the center of many legitimate and blackmarket sales to university researchers and private collectors alike. If you were a university scientist, how would you decide whether it is ethical for you to buy amber from Myanmar? Explain.  Bill Pennington, Trump Says N.F.L. Reuters. They have a duty to preserve the players’ health, but simultaneously feel pressure to get players back out on the field so the team can win. Act utilitarians focus on the effects of individual actions (such as John Wilkes Booths assassin… Is your opinion altered by the fact that the scientist quoted above is the neurologist for the Michigan State University football team? A 2019 study of the brains of 223 football players with CTE and 43 players without CTE found that for each additional 2.6 years of play, the risk of developing CTE doubled. The short answer is that the utilitarian approach ignores the existence of rights, which are supposed to resist appeals to utility. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. How do we answer that question? That insight is that morally appropriatebehavior will not harm others, but instead increase happiness or‘utility.’ What is distinctive about utilitarianismis its approach in taking that insight and developing an account ofmoral evaluation and moral direction that expands on it. , The NFL has taken other concrete steps to respond to the controversy. We have an incomplete understanding of the extent or distribution of pathology required to produce neurological dysfunction or to distinguish diseased from healthy tissue, with the neuropathological changes reported in apparently asymptomatic individuals.”, Neuropsychologist Munro Cullum argues: “I worry the pendulum has swung too far. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”. 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile. 23 Those juridical rights, then, are characterised by Mill as signs, which is totally coherent with the analytical method and the distrust of fictions of classic utilitarianism.  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.. Although the eclectic utilitarian approach might be considered superior to the classic utilitarian approach (or maybe not), it still does not resolve the property rights problem.  Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). Analytic philosophy, welfare economics, and The difficulty with this theory stems from defining and aggregating a measure of utility comparable for all people in a cost-benefit analysis . In Mill’s …  Robert F. Heary et al., Is Youth Football Safe? Stop and Frisk Practices. In this paper I will identify specific human rights violations and rank the resolutions based on the theory of utilitarianism.  In addition, evidence indicates (and is consistent with the self-serving bias) that industry funding of research often influences results. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. However Bentham argued that "every individual in the country tells for one, no individual for more than one", meaning that the weight of an individual’s happiness should always remain equivalent to that of another’s happiness regardless of personal status (Postema, 2006). Utilitarianism is one of the most important and influential moral theories of modern times. However, there are some weaknesses in this theory. The basic content of utilitarian theory is measured in pleasure and pain. New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. SAMPLE. But it can be shown that, by using the principles of rule-utilitarian theory, this paradox can easily be resolved and that, in actual fact, voting, even in large electorates, ... Harsanyi J.C. (1982) Rule Utilitarianism, Rights, Obligations and the Theory of Rational Behavior.